The following post explains a very simple yet an outstanding automatic 10 watt to 1000 watt emergency lamp circuit. The circuit also includes an automatic over voltage and low voltage battery shut off feature.
The entire circuit functioning may be understood with the following points:
Simulation and Working
Referring the below given circuit diagram, the transformer, bridge and the associated 100uF/25V capacitor forms a standard step down AC to DC power supply circuit.
The bottom SPDT relay is directly connected with the above power supply output such that it remains activated when mains is connected with the circuit.
In the above situation, the N/O contacts of the relay stay connected which keeps the LED shut OFF (since it's connected with the N/C of the relay).
This takes care of the LED switching, making sure than the LEDs are switched ON only in the absence of mains power.
However, the positive from the battery is not directly connected with the LED module, rather it comes via another relay N/O contacts (the upper relay).
This relay is integrated with a high/low voltage sensor circuit stationed for detecting the battery voltage conditions.
Supposing the battery is in a discharged condition, switching ON the mains keeps the relay deactivated so that the the rectified DC can reach the battery via the upper relay N/C contacts initiating the charging process of the connected battery.
When the battery voltages reaches the "full charge" potential, as per the setting of the 10 K preset, the relay trips and joins with the battery through its N/O contacts.
Now in the above situation if the mains fails, the LED module is able to get powered via the above relay and the lower relay N/O contacts and get illuminated.
Since relays are used, the power handling capacity becomes sufficiently high. The circuit is thus able to support in excess of 1000 watts of power (lamp), provided the relay contacts are appropriately rated for the preferred load.
The finalized circuit with an added feature can be seen below:
The circuit was drawn by Mr. Sriram kp, for details please go through the comment discussion between Mr Sriram and me.
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