As shown in the figure, the main element in the circuit is the opamp IC 741, which has been arranged as a comparator.
Pin#3 which is the inverting input of the IC is referenced with a fixed voltage of 4.7V through the respective zener/resistor network.
The other input is applied with the sensing voltage which is actually the voltage merged from the supply and the from the battery, in other words the charging voltage which is applied to the battery for charging.
The resistor network at pin#2 along with the preset forms a voltage divider network which is initially adjusted such that the voltage at this pin stays below the voltage level at pin3, which is the reference voltage set at 4.7v by the zener diode.
The preset is set in such a way that the voltage at pin#2 rises above the 4.7 mark as soon as the battery voltage rises above 50V or the fill charge threshold level of the battery.
The moment this happens, the output of the op amp goes low switching OFF the mosfet, and cutting off the voltage to the battery.
Initially as ling as the battery voltage and the over all voltage from the 48V supply remains below the full charge threshold level of the battery, the output of the opamp stays high and the mosfet us kept switched ON. This allows the voltage to the battery for charging, until the above explained threshold is reached which automatically inhibits the battery from further charging.
The mosfet can be selected as per the AH rating of the battery.
The above circuit can be upgraded into an over charge cut off, as well as low charge restoring battery charger system, for charging 48V batteries. The modifications enables the circuit to switch OFF the battery charging process at the set over charge threshold and restore back the process when the battery voltage falls below the low threshold value.
The 10k preset must be adjusted to set the full charge level while the 22k preset for detecting the lower threshold of the battery.
The above design appears to have one problem, it won't be able to detect low battery thresholds, the design should be rather configured in the following manner:
How to Set up the above Circuit:
For setting up procedure, the sample power supply should be connected across the points where the battery is connected, the mosfet does not require any attention initially. DO NOT connect the battery while carrying out this procedure.
Also keep the 22k preset link disconnected initially.
Apply the higher threshold level across the above mentioned points and adjust the 10K preset such that the RED LED just switches ON. Seal the adjusted preset with some glue.
Now reconnect the 22k preset link back into position.
Next, reduce the sample voltage to the lower threshold value and adjust the 22k preset such that now the green LED just lights up, while switching OFF the RED LED. If you find no response from the circuit try using a 100K preset instead of the 22k preset.
Seal the adjusted preset as above.
The setting up of the circuit is over and done.
Please note that during actual operations, the above circuit will remain functional only as long as a battery stays connected at the shown points, without a battery the circuit will not detect or respond.