Automatic Water Level Controller circuit

The article a very simple automatic water level controller circuit design which can be used for controlling the water level of an underground water tank by switching the pump motor ON and OFF, depending upon the relevant levels of water in the tank and the position of the immersed sensor points.


Circuit Description

As we all know water (in it’s impure form) that we get in our homes through our house water supply system, has a low resistance to electrical energy.
In simple words, water conducts electricity albeit very minutely. Normally the resistance of tap water might be in the range of 100 K to 200 K.
This resistance value is quite enough for electronic for exploiting it for the project described in this article that is for a simple water level controller circuit. We have used four NAND Gates here for the required sensing, the whole operation may be understood with the below given points:
Automatic Water Level Controller circuit



How the Sensors are Positioned

Referring to the above simple automatic water level controller indicator circuit, we see that point B which is at the positive potential is placed somewhere at the bottom section of the tank.

Point C is placed at the bottom of the tank, while point A is pinned at the top most section of the tank.

As long as water remains under point B, potentials at point A and point C remain at negative or ground level. It also means that the inputs of the relevant NAND gates are also clamped at logic low levels because of the 2M2 resistors.

how to install water sensors in tank


The outputs from N2 and N4 also remain at low logic, keeping the relay and motor switched OFF. Now suppose the water inside the tank starts filling and reaches point B, it connects point C and B, input of gate N1 becomes high making the otput of N2 also high.

However due to the presence of D1, the positive from the output of N2 does not make any difference to the preceding circuit.

Now when the water reaches point A, input of N3 becomes high and so does the output of N4.

N3and N4 gets latched due to the feed back resistor across the output of N4 and input of N3. The high output from N4 switches ON the relay and the pump starts emptying the tank.

As the tank gets vacated, the position of water at some point of time goes below point A, however this does not affect N3 and N4 as they are latched, and the motor keeps running.

However once the water level reaches below point B, point C and the input of N1 reverts to logic low, output of N2 also becomes low.

Here the diode gets forward biased and pulls the input of N3 also to logic low, which in turn makes the output of N4 low, subsequently switching OFF the relay and the pump motor.

Parts List for the above simple automatic water level controller circuit

Following parts are required for making this automatic water level controller circuit.

R1 = 100K,
R2, R3 = 2M2,
R4, R5= 1K,
T1 = BC547,
D1, D2 = 1N4148,
RELAY = 12V, 400 OHMS, SPDT,
N1, N2, N3, N4 = 4093
The above discussed automatic water level controller circuit was successfully built and tested by Mr. Ajay Dussa, the following images sent by Mr. Ajay confirm the procedures.
Automatic Water Level Controller with Indicator breadboard assembly
Water Level Controller with Indicator breadboard assembly


Automatic Water Level Controller track Layout


Automatic Water Level PCB component layout

158 thoughts on “Automatic Water Level Controller circuit

  1. Have questions? Please feel free to post them through comments! Comments will be moderated and solved ASAP.
  2. Hi,

    What happened, u shifted from Hubpages to Since I didn't find the project: "Wireless Remote Control Switch" discussed over there, I thought probably here I can place my query on that project….can you please let me know if I have to use a 22SWG magnet wire strictly for the "COIL" or if I can also use a 22SWG Hookup wire for the same purpose which will give me the same result? I think the hook up wire should not give me any different result as long as the coil specs for the Colpitts Oscillator are maintained. Isn't it?

    Anyways, I built the circuit on my breadboard first and used 4 Turns 7 mm dia 22SWG wire with about 2" hookup wire as antenna. I used my cellphone first as the receiver. Result: I can hear the melody from the UM66 only when the antenna is within 1" of the cellphone. Further the sound is too weak while Freq: 99.2 Mhz. When I used it with about 3ft long wire as antenna, with L1: 4 turns, 9mm dia and 22 SWG, I could listen to the melody on my Philips FWD17 when the antenna is near about 2" of the receiver. But, this time the weak melody is heard along with the program from nearby stations and it works between 100.4 to 107.2 Mhz. However, in your comments, you mentioned that with the suggested components, I should be able to get clear and loud music. Any suggestions?

  3. Hi Raj,

    Bright Hub is closed, so I am no longer writing for it. I have started my own Blog here, so you can freely comment here, as much as you like.

    Coming back to our circuit, the transmitted signals should be received by any FM radio even from a distance of more than 30 meters, loud and clear.
    If this is not happening then probably your transmitter is not tuned properly or has some other problem.
    A 22 swg hook up wire will do, or you can also layout the coil directly on the PCB by making a soldered "square" shaped spiral, using diode leads.
    However for your present inductor, you can try manipulating the distance between the turns by pulling them slightly apart, or squeezing them together a bit, for optimizing perfect tuning, do this by keeping your FM radio switched ON (on some blank channel). Alternatively, you can try making the coil diameter little smaller and see the results.
    Do you have a cordless FM microphone. You can easily use it as the remote control transmitter, however the controlling through it will be possible by speaking on the mic, your voice will act as the modulated signal.

    Just try the above modifications, feel free to tell if you need any further help.


  4. Hello,

    Thanks for your response.

    I tried my best with the coil modifications yesterday, but it did not yield any better results 🙁 Do you think, it is caused due to mounting of the components on the breadboard (causing additional impedence)? Have you chosen the values of the tank circuit (L1 and C3) correctly? Another question: do you imply the inner diameter of the coil as 7mm?

    A cordless microphone can be substituted here but I want to make the transmitter myself because it gives a different level of satisfaction to construct something on your own. Isn't it?

    Please get back to me with your views on this.


  5. Hi Raj,
    All the values (inductor and the associated caps) interact with each other and it can be difficult for a newcomer to optimize them perfectly unless it is done by looking at some working sample.
    I have made the transmitter circuit at least 10 times so far in my life, and each time I have used a little different configuration.
    Since I'm quite used to with the procedures, I always manage to make it work through some minute changes.
    As far as I know, all the parts in the given diagram are OK and suited for generating RF signals within the FM receivers range.
    I'll be posting one related circuit today itself and if possible I will also publish a scanned image of a working circuit there.
    I'll inform you once it gets published, or may be I'll direct you to some other link where a working model is described through pictures.
    Until then you can try troubleshooting the existing circuit.

  6. Does it have anything to do with the length of the component legs – which I have not shortened but have placed directly on my "breadboard" instead of soldering them on a PCB? Regards.

  7. Hello Swagatam,

    Thanks for the link.

    The image is little blurry however, it shows the presence of a Diode and absence of the electrolytic condencer 10Mf/10V.

    However, if I compare it with my present circuit parts list, you had suggested there to use 100nF (I used 104 disc) where as with the "Electronic Spy Bug Circuit", you have listed 10Mf/10V as C5. This is little confusing. Please explain. Can you provide a clear image of the circuit? Regards.

  8. Hi Raj,

    The prototype is of the RF stage only, which I had used for some other purpose, therefore the 10uF cap was not required.
    The 10uF cap is used just to pass the audio from the mic and is not critical, however any value from 1 to 100uF is preferable.
    Yes the lead length will affect the transmitter performance and should be kept withing 6mm, especially with the caps around the inductor.
    I took the image using a scanner, that is why only the coil could come clearer, because it was nearer to the scanner glass or screen.

    You may check this link, see fig.1 (only the left hand section to R4/C5 is important)


  9. Hi Swagatam

    The circuit here is good for UGT. Now in case of OHT, the pump, which is fitted on UGT, shud start when water level in OHT starts falling and goes below point B. The pump shud stop when water reaches point A. So pl give a circuit which works like this i.e pump starts at B and stops at A when tank gets filled up. Thanks.

  10. Hi Sunjay,
    I understood your need, you can use the above circuit for it, just connect the phase to the N/C contact of the relay. That's it, the circuit will now serve in the reverse order, as per your need.


  11. I tried to search it but found it too complicated. If you could put the pin nos in the circuit diagram it will make it easier for me to make it. Sorry for all this trouble. Thanks

  12. Hai sir,
    This question i refer to the circuit design of "how to build an electronic water level controller". the preview one cause i didn't found this project in this blog. i have some more question to know. why are you used the 10K resistor at the sensor B and connect in series to power 12V. Why you not used the same value of resistor of 100K. Then, why you choose capacitor 104 to stray pick up. how about the another value? plz..

  13. Hi Eila,
    Welcome to my blog!
    You can use any resistor between 1K and 100K here, it's only introduced for safety, in case point B get's shorted with any other point of the circuit.
    However since this resistance will come in series with the water resistance, the total value must not go beyond say 500K or 1M, or in other words the total resistance of water and the other series resistances should be much lower than the resistance value connected across NAND inputs and ground. This ensures greater sensitivity and failproof operation of the circuit.
    I hope you understood:-)

  14. oh. thank you sir.. how about the capacitor. can i put difference capacitor value than the 104. thanks cause you help me a lot to understand the operation of the circuit design.

  15. Hi,

    Please explain why your "BrightHub" circuit has capacitors & this circuit above does not.

    Are they not needed anymore?

    BrightHub circuit refers to 104 capacitor – is that 104uF?

    Many thanks,

  16. i am using groundwater and you know it will coated the sensor with rust particle,does sensors work at that condition?? rust mean brown particles over sensor due to ground water..

  17. I tried your circuit but i can't understand. So Plz help how much volt output will pin 11 generate on execution ? Because I tested a lot more and my bc548 fried I guess even with the 1k. I might be wrong.
    Also how can I make this to switch AC bell continuous rather than the pump during empty and during overflow ?
    Also how much voltage is minimum required to run this circuit Also can this circuit run on AC power ?

    Also will this work with AC current ?
    Sorry for so many question.

    • Pin 11 will produce voltage equal to the supply voltage.
      With a 1K base resistor the transistor can never fry, if the supply voltage is within 12 volts DC.

      For sounding an AC bell , just replace the pump connections with the ac bell wires.
      12 V is the correct voltage for operating this circuit, the relay should also be 12 volt rated with coil resistance of 400 ohms.
      If the coil resistance is less then use 2N2222 in place of bc548


  18. How to use this circuit in overhead tank (house hold) ?
    I just want this thing as per the above points a b c
    1) if water reaches A bell must sound and must be stopped if reset is pressed
    2) if water goes below B than bell must sound and must be stopped if.reset is pressed
    3) The sound for point a and b must be different.
    4) there must be a point in middle which will only glow led no sound
    5) there must be a LEDs for a and b too
    6) the circuit must operate in dc and AC mode with external or internal adaptor or circuit or transformer

    Sorry for so many points but I didn't know how to state this in technical language

    • Hi Billubhai,

      I will design a completely new circuit as requested by you, however since I would like to make it into a new article, I will need some content.
      So please provide me with at least a 200 word article about the above circuit, For example you may include:

      How the circuit should work,

      why you need this circuit,

      where you will use it,

      how it will help you,

      about your own interest in electronics,

      about your knowledge about the subject

      I cannot continue this blog without the readers help…just a little help as explained above.

      Send it to, I'll design the circuit and publish it here along with your name and the above data included in it.

      Thanks and Regards

  19. Just emailed you
    Knindly modify as per need.
    Also want to make a correction about indicator led status led
    Very high
    Ok (high)
    Motor on/off status led
    On AC power
    On battery Power
    System armed status
    Total 9 status led

    Motor on/off

  20. Can you help me make a water level controller(indicator) with following features only,
    1. When tank is empty, a motor starts and there is a buzzer sound, and a red LED glows.
    2. When full, Motor stops, red LED stops glowing,buzzer sound, green LED glows.
    3. Using gates

    • I have posted many water level controller circuits, you can search them through the search box. I am sure your requirement has also been covered somewhere in this blog

  21. this is the circuit am telling you about. file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/James/Desktop/WATER%20LEVEL/water%20level/water%20lev_files/how-to-make-simple-water-level.htm. thanks

  22. this is the circuit that am telling about that got blown after 3weeks. am suspecting the power supply, is 500ma transformer ok? can i use a relay alone to switch a 1.5hp pump? am waiting for your reply. thanks so much. this is the link to the circuit. file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/James/Desktop/WATER%20LEVEL/water%20level/water%20lev_files/how-to-make-simple-water-level.htm

    • 500 ma is OK, but voltage should be 12V.

      you cannot use a simple relay, you will have to use a 30 ampere contact relay, to operate this the transistor should be a BD139 or TIP122.

    • Sir so if i use 30amps relay do i still need a contactor? do i need a 12 volts regulator or do i power the circuit directly from the rectifier circuit. or is they any circuit you can refer me to for more efficiency, and can i use 1amp instead of the 500ma. thanks for your quick response.

    • contactor is better, don't use 30 amp relay….operate the relay through an ordinary relay.

      use a 7812 IC for regulating he circuit, that will be better.

      500mA or 1 amp, it won't make any difference as long as the relay is getting activated normally, and the voltage is is not exceeding 12V.

    • i thought it was the transformer that got blown. the transformer is still working fine, i used the 30amps relay to energise the 20amps contactor coil. so if the coil of the contactor of 20amps got blown. can the 30amps relay carry the 1.5hp pump. so what do i do Sir? this is the link of the circuit WATER%20LEVEL/water%20level/water%20lev_files/how-to-make-simple-water-level.htm

    • you can try connecting the motor to the 30 amp relay contacts directly, if the rating is 30 amp genuinely then there shouldn't be any problem, it should handle the load.

    • Hi Swagatam, you are doing wonderful job. I'm using water level indicators that I want to tie it to your "How to Make a Simple, Automatic Water Level Controller and Indicator circuit", how can I email you my plan? My email is canadaramatgmaildotcom


    • Thanks Mr. Swagatam, Yes, I’ve water reservoir that is pumped from wale and wale pump is manually turned on as we need it. The wale pump is submersed and uses 220v power. So what I want to do is that I got this plan from web to show me my water level and want to know how to tie it to your “Simple Water Level Controller Circuit with Over Voltage and Under Voltage Cut OFF” Or any pump control you may suggest. How can I send the drawing for water level? Thanks

  23. Thank you Mr. Swagatam, the paln that I sent you do you think it's the best? What about the the idea from BilluBhai? Also a note: In nothe America 220V is 3 wires (110v, 110v and negative) How can I wire it? How abou 5v supply (battery or)? Can you pls exp when pump will be on and off? Sorry for many question. Thanks

  24. Thank you once again! I’ll work on it next week and I’ll update you on the progress.
    I’ve left Avionics 20 years ago and now I’m just refreshing myself. Currently I’m an IT consultant (Fiber Optics, LAN…)
    (This is personal question and you can delete it before you post it. Are you very well off on funding your time? I want to build these units for nonprofit organizations for Africa and North America for both drinking water and sewage tanks. So my question is that I’ve $100.00 Canadian that I can send you to help even though very small amount but I’m cutting it from my food, can I send it to just to help?)
    I read all your works and you are doing fantastic work. Thanks a lot.

    • You will have determine the coil, the pole, the N/C (normally closed, and the N/O (normally open) contacts of the relay, then it would become easier for you to wire them up.

  25. This is a great place and you specially.
    Here is the plan:
    I want to use your IC4049 setup but want it to do the following: Please help me design it. Thanks
    A=Full, B=3/4, C=1/2, D=1/4 and E=Empty
    Then each sensor to have LED indications
    Power on indicator LED
    Pump on LED
    D=will have buzzer
    B= will start the pump
    A=will shut of the pump
    Override switch to turn the pump ON/OFF in case of circuit malfunctions
    Since some of the well are slow recovery, that means no enough water to pump and it should have timer limit to shut off the pump at set time or default countdown clock. (The pump will shut off after so many hour(s) using same circuit)
    Another note: In some parts of world they don’t use pump, so only visuals and buzzers needed.
    Some of my friends want to fund it to be manufacturing it via you or china so please your work and your help very much appreciated. Our budget is as free as possible since it's for non profit. You may edit the post as you wish. Thank you again.

    • Helo Ram,

      The problem is that i won't be able to post your request as a new article because already I have posted many similar articles, it would be a repetition.

      And drawing a diagram for the explanations would be difficult due to lack of time.

      I would suggest you build the 4049 set up which has been provided in the relevant article….after you build that, I'll explain you the steps and ways to modify it further as per your needs.

      What do you think?

      I am not expecting any compensation for this:)

  26. Thank you so much! Mr. Swagatama, I agree I'll work on it but can you please draw the circuit as per my request and email me so we can finish this project?. Thank you for your kind work!

  27. Hi, Mr. Swagatam, project will be delayed for 10 days or so because no body in town has IC4049 & BC547. I'm just ordering it now online. Thank you and I'll post you with the update. Thank you!

    • The circuit will work even if the relay/transistor stage is removed.

      Simply connect this gate (N1) just like the other gates are connected, and put point F below terminal E which becomes the lowermost level indicator now.

  28. Thanks Mr. Swagatam, this stage is done. What is next? May be you can refer to some of my request on February 24, 2013 at 10:06 PM. Thank you in advance for your kind work.

    • Thanks Ram,

      If you have made the circuit, you may power it and check the LED responses. you may connect a buzzer at the output of gate with sensor D.

      I have answered your previous email, if it would be a new concept then surely I would have added it as a new post, but already there are plenty of water level controller circuits in this blog, it wouldn't be good to repeat the subject once again.

      I am sorry about that.

  29. Thank you Mr. Swagatam, yes I tested the circuit in breadboard and works great. I agree with and I don't want new post but help me to modify it as per my plan. I got power LED and buzzer being added. Now I need add to time limit for pump to run regardless of sensor, this is very important in my case that some wells don't produce enough water and need recovery time. Maximum pump run should be 1.5hr. O' what relay is good to you? my pump is 220v 7A, can I use car relay? Thank you very much. I don't know how you keep everyone so happy, what you do is not easy (I mean running this blog) replying to every comment in every subject. God bless you!

  30. Thank you Mr. Swagatam, I'll start to build it but I'm missing some parts and we don't have it locally so I need to order them. Can you please help with my custom list so I can order all my parts and I don't want this project to take months? I need to run the pump at least 1.5 hour be for off so what is the C1 value? ( C1=0.22 & R=4.7M calculation said 1.4 hour)
    Also what about C1 voltage, can it be 50V or must be 25v?
    I don't want ask you for every section so please help me order all the parts I need at once to put my project complete. Thank you so much.

    Also what about C1 voltage, can it be 50V or must be 25v?
    I don't want ask you for every section so please help me order all the parts I need at once to put my project complate. Thank you so much.

    • I have updated the parts list, please check it out. I have made C1 = 1uF for increasing the time range of the circuit.

      You will have to adjust P1 by trial and error for getting the required delay.


  31. Thanks Mr Swagatam, I'll build it and play P1. But, where do I link the two circuits? What about the switch? I only want the switches for over ride only. Thank you again.

    • Hi Ram,

      I am getting little confused, please specify the requirements one by one.

      The discussed timer circuit will allow you to keep the motor ON for the time determined by the setting of P1 after that it will shut off…..what would you like to associate with this timer circuit?

      an override switch can be added in series with one of the motor wires. This switch will be always ON, but can be switched OFF in case the circuit fails accidentally.

  32. Thank you Mr Swagatam for getting back to me so quick. Sorry to confuse you but in the past February 25, 2013 at 4:06 PM you told me to build 4049 and I did but now want to integrate with timer circuit. Thanks again

  33. Thank you Mr. Swagatam, when water goes below sensor B pump should start and run for maximum of 1.5hour and goes off or when water reaches sensor A. And remains off for at least 3hours and start pump if water is below sensor A. This cycle will continue until full or over-ride the pump. Thanks

    • Hi Ram,

      Presently I am concentrating on new posts so I am afraid I won't be able to help you right now….keep experimenting with different circuits in this blog I am hopeful you might be able to do it all by yourself…..

    • Hi Ram,

      Thanks for cooperating, you can carry on with the work, if you find yourself stuck in the middle, I am always there to help you out, so you don't have to worry….

    Manny thanks to your post.very helpfull to in electrical works and electronics hobbyist ' assembling water pump controller,ats,and other motor control circuit.i build your design and its work great'i save 8x lower to the price of (anly floatless sensor relay)which i always use every time i build a controller.

    More power to you and god bless'

  35. hi, swagatam
    i have made your project but i have some trouble due to probe. i have used GI Iron Rod as probe it has electrolyzed after some time and i need to change it every time so could you give me the right things which can be better for probe. i am waiting for your suggestion plz.

    • Hi Vesh,

      The probes should be in the form of small leads such as a screw or a nail etc, rod is too big to be a sensor.
      You can try to get the sensor leads plated with chromium or tin…tinning could be a easier option, or simply look for tin plated metals and use them as the electrodes.

    • Good day,

      I am interested in circuit design and simulation as well but I don have equipment to take my desire to another level. Could someone help me with the design software preferably multisim because I have once used it so its easy for me.

      My email is if willing to use it.


  36. स्वचालित जल स्तर नियंत्रक सर्किट एक सरल इंजीनियरिंग परियोजना है. यह स्वतः ही टैंक पानी के स्तर के आधार पर और घरेलू पानी पंप सेट बंद कर सकता है. आप कम महंगा घटकों का उपयोग कर अपने घर या कॉलेज में इस मोटर चालक सर्किट लागू कर सकते हैं. परियोजना की अनुमानित की लागत के बारे में $ 5 केवल है. इस जल स्तर नियंत्रक सर्किट का मुख्य लाभ यह स्वचालित रूप से किसी भी उपयोगकर्ता संपर्क के बिना पानी पंप है कि नियंत्रण है.
    इस पंप नियंत्रक सर्किट का दिल एक पूर्वोत्तर आईसी 555 है; यहाँ हम 555 मज़दूर आईसी अंदर फ्लिप फ्लॉप चालाकी है. हमारी परियोजना दो जल स्तर सेंसर, तल पर शीर्ष पर तय की एक और अन्य के होते हैं. इस सर्किट का कार्य करना एक द्वि स्थिर mutlivibrator लगभग समान है. इस सर्किट का अनुकरण भी कम दिया जाता है. निश्चित रूप से यह आप अपने शैक्षिक परियोजना करने में मदद मिलेगी.
    आवश्यक घटक
    बिजली की आपूर्ति (6V)
    पूर्वोत्तर 555 मज़दूर आईसी
    प्रतिरोधों (100Ωx2, 10kΩ)
    रिले (6V, 30A)
    ईसा पूर्व 548 ट्रांजिस्टर X2
    1N4007 डायोड
    स्वत: पानी की टंकी स्तर नियंत्रक का कार्य
    दूसरे पिन (ट्रिगर पिन) में वोल्टेज Vcc कम से कम 1/3 है जब इसके उत्पादन उच्च जाता है यानी हम, 555 टाइमर आईसी की संपत्ति पता है.
    इसके अलावा, हम 4 पिन (PIN रीसेट) पर एक कम वोल्टेज लगाने से आईसी वापस रीसेट कर सकते हैं.
    इस परियोजना में 3 तारों पानी की टंकी में डूबा रहे हैं. हमें दो जल स्तर नीचे (कम) स्तर और प्रमुख (उत्तर प्रदेश) के स्तर को परिभाषित करते हैं. तार या जांच की एक Vcc से है.
    नीचे स्तर से जांच आईसी 555 का ट्रिगर (2) पिन से जुड़ा है. यह पानी से कवर किया जाता है तो जब 2 पिन पर वोल्टेज Vcc है.
    जल स्तर नीचे चला जाता है, 2 पिन ट्रिगर पिन पर पानी यानी वोल्टेज से (अछूता) काट दिया जाता Vcc से भी कम हो जाता है. तो फिर 555 का उत्पादन अधिक हो जाता है.
    555 का उत्पादन एक BC548 ट्रांजिस्टर को खिलाया जाता है, यह रिले का तार energizes और पानी पंप सेट चालू है.
    पानी का स्तर बढ़ जाता है, वहीं शीर्ष स्तर की जांच के पानी से कवर किया और ट्रांजिस्टर पर हो जाता है. इसकी कलेक्टर वोल्टेज Vce को जाता है (सैट) = 0.2.
    4 पिन पर कम वोल्टेज आईसी रीसेट करता है. तो 555 का उत्पादन 0V हो जाता है. इसलिए मोटर स्वचालित रूप से बंद हो जाएगा.
    इस परियोजना के साधारण प्रदर्शन के लिए यदि आप के बजाय रिले के 555 के उत्पादन में सीधे एक डीसी मोटर का उपयोग कर सकते हैं.
    व्यावहारिक कार्यान्वयन के लिए, आप एक रिले का उपयोग करना चाहिए. रिले की रेटिंग लोड (मोटर) के हिसाब से चुना जाता है. 32 एम्पीयर रिले सबसे अच्छा घरेलू अनुप्रयोगों के लिए अनुकूल है.
    यह भी पढ़ें: रिले कनेक्ट करने के लिए कैसे: रिले एनीमेशन के साथ काम करना
    नीचे स्तर और शीर्ष स्तर स्विच पर माउस क्लिक आप पानी नीचे स्तर पर है जब मोटर काम शुरू होता है और पानी शीर्ष स्तर की मोटर पर पहुंचता है जब कामकाज बंद हो जाता है देख सकते हैं कि एनीमेशन से, पानी का स्तर दिखा.
    यह भी पढ़ें:

    संख्यात्मक जल स्तर सूचक
    पानी की टंकी ओवरफ्लो तरल स्तर सेंसर अलार्म सर्किट
    अब, यहाँ अपने जल स्तर नियंत्रक परियोजना है. इस परियोजना आप के लिए उपयोगी था? अपने विचारों को साझा करने और परियोजना के बारे में कोई संदेह स्पष्ट करने के लिए नीचे दिए गए टिप्पणी बॉक्स का उपयोग करने के लिए मत भूलना

    • Arun, I have seen it, but could not study it fully due to lack of time.

      As for the single terminal sensor, it is not possible according to me.

      you can try float switch mechanism for a corrosion free operation.

  37. sir why we use 4 nand gates in this circuit, i mean why we would not use two nand gates, and how diode become forward biased.
    sir please explain me about diode working.
    i shall be very thankful to u.

  38. hello,
    If I want to connect this circuit for the water tank that works with 220v what changes should I make? practically must control a pump that operates at 220v.

    Advance many thanks.

    • hello, the above circuit is meant for 220V operation, see the relay connections it's configured with mains voltage.

      the circuit will need to be powered from a 12V adapter.

    • Naveen, a contactors is also a form of relay, but these are much heavier in terms of current capacity than the conventional relays, and therefore better suited to handle high current loads

  39. Hi Swagat,

    It is really good to get all these information. I have same requirement of water indicator which I am going to make now.

    I have one query regarding the wireless receiver, that my building is quite high and the receiver will be around 500 meters + distance from the OHT.

    Can you please able to provide me the desing of the receiver to cover that big distance.

  40. Hi,

    very helpfull post!
    Can you help me telling me how to deal with the circuit running reversing the relay?
    I need it to run at the NC position because I have a Preassure sensor to activate the pump and I want to disable the system when no water is at the bottom level sensor opening it. When the both sensors are powered then the relay become open instead of closed. Thanks!!!!

    • Hi, thanks, if you want to reverse the relay and the motor operations, you just need to apply the indicated N/O phase supply to the N/C contact of the relay

    • Thanks foir your reply!
      I did that, but I guess I need to explain myself better.

      The system needs to operate the opposite way you planned, I need to power the relay coil when NO water is in the tank but turn it off when water reaches the top sensor so the pump get in phase. Then gates get latched (relay power is still off) until water reaches the bottom sensor where reley coil is powered and pump circuit opens. I just not want to get the relay powered all the time because almost 99,9% of the time the UGT tank would be filled. I think that its better to activate to shut the system of in case of no water is present.

      Thanks again!!!!

    • If you don't' the relay to be powerd all the time then you can try replacing the BC547 with a BC557 and connect the relay/diode assembly across its collector and negative supply…the emitter will go to the positive supply….rest everything can remain exactly as given in the diagram

    • Kaushik,

      you can use IC 4017 or any other suitable configuration for implementing the idea….you can use 1N4007 diode for the relay coil if the relay coil resistance is much lower or if the relay is rated to handle more than 20 amps

    • the resistance wattage can be 1/4 watt but the configuration will change entirely.

      for the PCB you can contact any qualified PCB designer, he will do it for you.

  41. Dear Mr. Swatagam. Many thanks for your well designed circuits. I wish to pump water in a similar fashion from a tank collecting rain water. Will the high resistivity of the water be too high for this circuit to work and if so is there a way of amplifying the signal to make it work? Our rain water has a conductivity of 5 to 6 microsiemens/ cm compared with our municipal supply at 200-300 microsiemens per cm. I have to pump the rain water from a 750 litre collection tank near the house to a position above and behind the house to fill two 5000 litre tanks. Thanking you, Mike Ellis. Durban. South Africa.

    • Thanks Mike, Rain water will also have some impurity in it since it has to go through many pollutants in the atmosphere, and this will be enough for conducting electricity to some extent. But if there's a lot of movement in the water then the sensitivity of the probes can get affected…to remedy this you can add a pipe enclosure around the probes, meaning use a long pipe inside the tank, and keep the probes inside this pipe such that the water column inside the pipe can be used for the conduction and detection.

  42. My water project is up and running thanks to your circuits. Sensing probes are always a problem and I used a simple method in the pharmaceutical industry since 1979. Simply use 2mm 316 stainless welding rod forced through a 1.5mm drilled hole in a good quality plastic fitting. It never rusts and is small enough not to be affected by too much water motion. In addition, your circuit can be driven by 3 or 4 volts, so , I used second hand 5 volt cell phone chargers to power them. These are obtainable locally for ZAR 10. These give plenty power to drive 6 volt relays and of course they have been designed almost bullet proof and are compact. I have the project on facebook (Mike Ellis Kloof) and made the project public, so you can see it if you want. But essentially I am collecting water off our roof and ditching the first 400 litres as a first flush. As soon as the tank is filled a 0.55Kw pump is switched on and that sensing circuit also powers another relay to switch on a second sensing circuit on the 2×5000 litre main tanks. When the main tanks are full their sensor redirects the water to the ground at the back of our property. The main tank feed is then used via a pressure controlled pump to feed the house. This pump is also protected by one of your circuits to switch off in the event the tanks get empty. Thank you once more for your circuit which I have acknowledged on Face Book. The circuit I used for 40 years at my work (NBI – ), used BC337 and BC327 transistors and three relays. It was also bullet proof, but the cost of the relays made it expedient to use your circuit. Once more thank you for your effort to make life easier for us. Kind regards, Mike.

    • Thanks so much Mike, that's amazing, you have turned my designs into reality.

      I appreciate your efforts a lot, in future if you have any queries regarding any new circuit-idea please feel free to drop a comment, I'll be always there to help you.

  43. Dear Sir,

    Thanks for sharing this valuable information, Hats-off to you.

    As per this circuit it is working very well, but when it is connected to Half or One HP motor, when it goes beyond 'B' motor getting ON and when it touch 'A' motor is getting OFF, and then now it is in standby for 1 hour and 30 minis motor is in OFF condition only, but same all three points (A,B,C) are immersed, after 1 hour and 30 minis motor is switched ON automatically if it is even all three are immersed and it is not getting switched off till we OFF manually, can you please help how to rectifies this issue. I'm using every thing as you told.

    Thanks & Best Regards
    PG Ragavandir

    • Thank you Raghavan, I appreciate your enthusiasm,

      check the circuit again by replacing the motor with a 100 watt bulb, if it works normally then the problem could be in the relay, or due to instability.

      Make sure the relay contacts are rated to handle at least 30 amp current and for this the BC547 driver transistor will need to be upgraded to 2N2222, and also connect 0.22uF capacitors in parallel with R2, R3 and across base/emitter of T1.

      also if the water is turbulent in the tank, then the sensors might fail to detect the connections across the terminals….to prevent this you can immerse the contacts within a plastic pipe so that the water column inside the pipe provides stable water levels for the sensing.

    • Dear sir,

      Thanks for the response & support, sir I tried what you told but same problem again, now I came to know that after the motor getting 'ON' automatically after 1 hour 30 min because of the BATTERY, If we change new battery to the circuit immediately, again the circuit is working normally.

      Sir in this case whether I can use transformer? if so please tell me how to connect transformer and which one? If you say I will send photo sir. Eagerly waiting for your reply.

      Thanks & Best Regards
      PG Ragavandir

    • Dear Ragavan, battery is actually not recommended since it can discharge and cause instability, a transformer power supply is ideally recommended for this circuit.

      alternatively you can buy a 12V/1amp AC/DC adapter from the market and simply connect its (+)(-) wires at the points where you had previously connected the battery supply, that's all you need to do for the wiring

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