The discussed circuit is designed to discourage dogs from barking in the selected zone by the generation of a synchronized ultrasonic sound waves in response to a few initial barking of a particular dog.
The circuit when correctly optimized will produce a high pitched ultra sonic sound each time it senses a dog bark. Since the sound is in the ultrasonic range will be inaudible to humans, and audible to only dogs present in the vicinity.
How the Dog Bark Terminator Works
Referring to the above shown dog bark inhibitor circuit, we can see three distinct stages involved, the sound sensor and preamplifier circuit using the Q1 and the electret MIC stage, the monostable stage using IC1 and the associated parts and the ultrasonic sound generator stage using the IC2 and the speaker driver stage.
Whenever a dog barks, the Mic detects it causing a sequential low and high pulse at the base of T1. T1 responds to this and produces an equivalent amplified signal across C2, which in turn triggers the pin#2 of the monostable IC1.
The above action forces IC1 to produce a high at its pin#3 for a period determined by the values of R5/C3.
This high at pin#3 of IC1 enables the reset pin#4 of IC2 to become active thereby allowing the astable IC2 to supply the ultrasonic pulse at its pin#3, which is appropriately amplified by the associated TIP122 transistor, driving the connected speaker.
The speaker vibrates at the specified amplified level throwing the ultrasonic sound in the direction where the dogs need to be driven away.
The above sound waves is supposed to fluster the dogs and cause a lot of disturbance in their ears due to its high pitched sound, and also due to its synchronized effect with the dog's own barking sequence.
Actually the above dog barking stopping device might respond to all types of high dB sound levels, however since it won't be audible to a human ear this will never be an issue, and may be ignored.
Making the Circuit more Sensitive
If you find the above dog barking prohibitor circuit not responding to barking signals or any sound distant signals correctly, then you must try upgrading the MIC stage with an IC based MIC amplifier stage as shown in the following image:
Once you build the above circuit, you can eliminate or remove R1, R2, C1 from the first circuit, and replace it with the mentioned opamp based MIC amplifier circuit and configure the C3 output from the opamp with the base of Q1.
This upgrade will ensure that the circuit responds appropriately even to weak sound signals, specifically dog barking sound during night time, and trigger the IC 555 stages for the intended results.
Increasing the Range over 50 Meters
To make the above design respond to dog barks at distances over 50 meters, the following modified idea could be tried.
However this circuit being extremely sensitive could get triggered by other forms of sounds in the vicinity.