This article will illustrate a simple procedure to devise an unregulated 50V switching SMPS symmetric power supply of 350W. This unit can be substituted with the standard audio amplifier power supply to reduce expense and also the weight. The proposed power supply works as a half-bridge with no regulation.
Written and Submitted by: Dhrubajyoti Biswas
Mosfets as Power Devices
My power supply relies on two N MOSFET and run by IR2153 integrated circuit. The IR2153 is powered by a power resistor of 27K 6W. The ripple at full load is recorded below 2V.
The use of Zener diode (15V) ensures voltage stabilization and the operating frequency is set to 50 kHz (approx.).
At the point of the input, I have placed a thermistor to force a check on the peak current when the capacitor is getting charged.
This same phenomenon can be found in AT/ATX power supply unit of a computer. Moreover, to ensure low leakage inductance and full voltage output, the first half of the primary is wounded in 20 turns followed by the secondary wound.
Also to assure safety in the system, do be sure to connect the output (center tap 0V) to the earth.
Chokes for Filtering RF
The chokes used in the design will facilitate removal of RF output ripple. The number of turns and the core which is found in PC supply is not a critical factor.
Additionally, the 6k8 resistors at the output section is used to discharge capacitors after it is switched off and this way it helps to prevent the voltage increase during no load.
The proposed Switched power supply 2x 50V 350W operates in single switch forward topology. It has an operating frequency of 80-90 kHz and has IRF2153 control circuit which is very much similar to that of US3842. However, the duty cycle is lesser and is limited to 50%.
Rewinding an ATX Trafo
The Tr1 transformer was devised by rewinding the SMPS ATX transformer and its primary inductance is 6.4 mH (approx.).
The core of the system has no air gap and the primary inductance is further broken in two parts: The first half is the wind and the second is the winding.
Moreover, it is also feasible to deploy the original primary bottom half without rewinding. This type of power supply aptly suits for power amplifier applications.
If required it may be also safeguarded against overload or short circuit and the voltage of the output could be stabilized. The Feedback of the system may be enabled through the help of optocoupler.
It is important to note that in regard to 350W power, care should be taken that in the conductive state the typical resistance should not cross more than 0.8R. MOSFET can also be used to lower the point of resistance.
Interestingly, the smaller the resistance better is with the system.
The voltage tolerance is in the range of 900-1000V. In the worst case scenario 800V can be used. Considering this, the best MOSFET I found was SPP17N80C3 or 900V IGBTs.
Coil Winding Details:
The main transformer which can be seen integrated with the mosfets may be wound on a standard 90 by 140mm^2 ferrite bobbin core assembly.
The primary side winding consists of 40 turns of 0.6mm super enameled copper wire.
Remember to stop after 20 turns, put an insulation layer with an insulation tape and wind the secondary winding, once the secondary is wound, insulate it again and continue with the remaining 20 turns over it.
Meaning the secondary winding gets sandwiched between the primary 20 + 20 turns.
The center tap of this 20+20 may be connected with the body of the SMPS for an improved stabilization and cleaner outputs in terms of ripples or buzzing interferences.
The secondary consists of a center tapped 14 x 2nos turns made by winding 0.6mm super enameled copper wire.
The input and output filter coils may be wound on ferrite torroidal cores. The paired winding must be wound on the same individual torroidal cores using 0.6mm super enameled copper wire with 25 turns on each arm of the relevant supply terminals.
The above design 350 watt SMPS circuit was further improved by one of the dedicated members of this website Mr. Ike Mhlanga. The complete schematic of the same can be witnessed in the following figure: