Designing an inverter transformer can be a complex affair. However, using the various formulas and by taking the help of one practical example shown here, the operations involved finally become very easy.

The present article explains through a practical example the process of applying the various formulas for making an inverter transformer.The various formulas required for designing a transformer has been already discussed in one my previous articles.

**Update: A detailed explanation can be also studied in this article: How to Make Transformers**

## Designing an Inverter Transformer

An inverter is your personal power house, which is able to transform any high current DC source into readily usable AC power, quite similar to the power received from your house AC outlets.

Although inverters are extensively available in the market today, but designing your own customized inverter unit can make you overwhelmingly satisfied and moreover it's great fun.

At Bright Hub I have already published many inverter circuit diagram, ranging from simple to sophisticated sine wave and modified sine wave designs.

However folks keep on asking me regarding formulas that can be easily used for designing a inverter transformer.

The popular demand inspired me to publish one such article dealing comprehensively with transformer design calculations. Although the explanation and the content was up to the mark, quite disappointingly many of you just failed to grasp the procedure.

This prompted me to write this article which includes one example thoroughly illustrating how to use and apply the various steps and formulas while designing your own transformer.

Let’s quickly study the following attached example:Suppose you want to design an inverter transformer for a 120 VA inverter using a 12 Volt automobile battery as the input and need 230 Volts as the output. Now, simply dividing 120 by 12 gives 10 Amps, this becomes the required secondary current.

Want to learn how to design basic inverter circuits?

In the following explanation the Primary Side is referred to as the Transformer side which may be connected at the DC Battery side, while the Secondary side signifies the Output AC 220V side.

The data in hand are:

**Secondary Voltage**= 230 Volts,**Primary Current (Output Current)**= 10 Amps.**Primary Voltage (Output Voltage)**= 12-0-12 volts, that is equal to 24 volts.**Output Frequency**= 50 Hz

### Calculating Inverter Transformer Voltage, Current, Number of Turns

**Step#1**: **First we need to find the core area CA **= *1.152 ×√(24 × 10) = 18 sq.cm where 1.152 is a constant.*

We select CRGO as the core material.

**Step#2**: **Calculating Turns per Volt TPV** = *1 / (4.44 × 10 ^{–4} ×18 × 1.3 × 50) = 1.96, except 18 and 50 all are constants.*

**Step#3**: **Calculating Secondary Current** = *24 × 10 / 230 × 0.9 (assumed efficiency) = 1.15 Amps,*

By matching the above current in Table A we get the approximate **Secondary copper wire thickness** = 21 SWG.

Therefore the **Number of Turns for the Secondary winding is calculated as** = *1.96 × 230 = 450*

Step#4: Next, **Secondary Winding Area becomes** = *450 / 137 (from Table A) = 3.27 sq.cm.*

Now, the required Primary current is 10 Amps, therefore from Table A we match an equivalent **thickness of copper wire** = *12 SWG.*

**Step#5**: **Calculating Primary Number of Turns** = *1.04 (1.96 × 24) = 49.* The value 1.04 is included to ensure that a few extra turns are added to the total, to compensate for the winding losses.

**Step#6**: **Calculating Primary Winding Area** = *49 / 12.8 (From Table A) = 3.8 Sq.cm.*

Therefore, the **Total Winding Area** Comes to = *(3.27 + 3.8) × 1.3 (insulation area added 30%) = 9 sq.cm.*

**Step#7**: **Calculating Gross Area **we get = *18 / 0.9 = 20 sq.cm.*

Step#8: Next, the **Tongue Width becomes** = *√20 = 4.47 cm.*

Consulting Table B yet again through the above value we finalize the **core type to be 6 (E/I)** approximately.

**Step#9**: Finally the **Stack is calculated** as = *20 / 4.47 = 4.47 cm*

#### Table A

SWG------- (AMP)------- Turns per Sq.cm.

10----------- 16.6---------- 8.7

11----------- 13.638------- 10.4

12----------- 10.961------- 12.8

13----------- 8.579--------- 16.1

14----------- 6.487--------- 21.5

15----------- 5.254--------- 26.8

16----------- 4.151--------- 35.2

17----------- 3.178--------- 45.4

18----------- 2.335--------- 60.8

19----------- 1.622--------- 87.4

20----------- 1.313--------- 106

21----------- 1.0377-------- 137

22----------- 0.7945-------- 176

23----------- 0.5838--------- 42

24----------- 0.4906--------- 286

25----------- 0.4054--------- 341

26----------- 0.3284--------- 415

27----------- 0.2726--------- 504

28----------- 0.2219--------- 609

29----------- 0.1874--------- 711

30----------- 0.1558--------- 881

31----------- 0.1364--------- 997

32----------- 0.1182--------- 1137

33----------- 0.1013--------- 1308

34----------- 0.0858--------- 1608

35----------- 0.0715--------- 1902

36----------- 0.0586---------- 2286

37----------- 0.0469---------- 2800

38----------- 0.0365---------- 3507

39----------- 0.0274---------- 4838

40----------- 0.0233---------- 5595

41----------- 0.0197---------- 6543

42----------- 0.0162---------- 7755

43----------- 0.0131---------- 9337

44----------- 0.0104--------- 11457

45----------- 0.0079--------- 14392

46----------- 0.0059--------- 20223

47----------- 0.0041--------- 27546

48----------- 0.0026--------- 39706

49----------- 0.0015--------- 62134

50----------- 0.0010--------- 81242

#### Table B

Type-------------------Tongue----------Winding

No.---------------------Width-------------Area

17(E/I)--------------------1.270------------1.213

12A(E/12I)---------------1.588-----------1.897

74(E/I)--------------------1.748-----------2.284

23(E/I)--------------------1.905-----------2.723

30(E/I)--------------------2.000-----------3.000

21(E/I)--------------------1.588-----------3.329

31(E/I)--------------------2.223-----------3.703

10(E/I)--------------------1.588-----------4.439

15(E/I)---------------------2.540-----------4.839

33(E/I)---------------------2.800----------5.880

1(E/I)-----------------------2.461----------6.555

14(E/I)---------------------2.540----------6.555

11(E/I)---------------------1.905---------7.259

34(U/T)--------------------1/588---------7.259

3(E/I)-----------------------3.175---------7.562

9(U/T)----------------------2.223----------7.865

9A(U/T)--------------------2.223----------7.865

11A(E/I)-------------------1.905-----------9.072

4A(E/I)---------------------3.335-----------10.284

2(E/I)-----------------------1.905-----------10.891

16(E/I)---------------------3.810-----------10.891

5(E/I)----------------------3.810-----------12.704

4AX(U/T) ----------------2.383-----------13.039

13(E/I)--------------------3.175-----------14.117

75(U/T)-------------------2.540-----------15.324

4(E/I)----------------------2.540----------15.865

7(E/I)----------------------5.080-----------18.969

6(E/I)----------------------3.810----------19.356

35A(U/T)-----------------3.810----------39.316

8(E/I)---------------------5.080----------49.803

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