Written and Submitted By: Dhrubajyoti BiswasFirst you need to find 60V DC power supply for powering the proposed 5kVA inverter circuit. The intention is to design a switching inverter which will enable change the DC voltage of 60V to a higher 220V at a lowered current. The topology followed in this scenario is the push-pull topology which uses transformer on the ratio of 5:18. For voltage regulation which you may need, and the current limit – they are all powered by an input voltage source. Also at the same rate, the inverter expedites the current allowed. When it comes to an input source of 20A it is possible to get 2 – 5A. However, the peak output voltage of this 5kva inverter is around 220V.
In regard to the architecture, Tr1 transformer has 5+5 primary turns and 18 for secondary. For switching, it is possible to use 4+4 MOSFET (IXFH50N20 type (50A, 200V, 45mR, Cg = 4400pF). You are also free to use MOSFET of any voltage with Uds 200V (150V) along with least conductive resistance. The gate resistance used and its efficiency in speed and capacity must be excellent.
The Tr1 ferrite section is constructed around 15x15 mm ferrite c. The L1 inductor is designed using five iron powder rings that may be wound as wires. For inductor core and other associated parts, you can always get it from old inverters (56v/5V) and within their snubber stages.
For integrated circuit the IC IR2153 can be deployed. The outputs of the ICs could be seen buffered with BJT stages. Moreover, due to the large gate capacitance involved it is important to use the buffers in the form of power amplifier complementary pairs, a couple of of BD139 and BD140 NPN / PNP transistors do the job well.
You may also try to use other control circuits like SG3525. Also, you can alter the voltage of the input and work in direct connection with the mains for testing purpose. The topology used in this circuit has the facility of galvanic isolation and operating frequency is around 40 kHz. In case if you have planned to use the inverter for a small operation, you don’t cooling, but for longer operation be sure to add a cooling agent using fans or large heatsinks. Most of the power is lost at the output diodes and the Schottky voltage goes low around 0.5V.
The input 60V could be acquired by putting 5 nos of 12Vbatteries in series, the AH rating of each battery must be rated at 100 AH
The 220V obtained at the output of TR1 in the above 5kav inverter circuit still cannot be used for operating normal appliances since the AC content would be oscillating at the input 40kHz frequency.
For converting the above 40 kHz 220V AC into 220V 50 Hz or a 120V 60Hz AC, further stages would be required as stated below:
First the 220V 40kHz will need to be rectified/filtered through a bridge rectifier made up of fast recovery diodes rated at around 25 amps 300V and 10uF/400V capacitors.
Next, this rectified voltage which would now mount up to around 310V would need to be pulsed at the required 50 or 60 Hz through another full bridge inverter circuit as shown below:
Update: An upgraded version of the above can be studied in this PWM sinewave 5kva inverter circuit
The terminals marked "load" could be now directly used as the final output for operating the desired load.
Here the mosfets could be IRF840 or any equivalent type will do.
How to Wind the Ferrite Transformer TR1
The transformer TR1 is the main device which is responsible for stepping up the voltage to 220V at 5kva, being ferrite cored based it's constructed over a couple of ferrite EE cores as detailed below:
Since the power involved is massive at around 5kvs, the E cores needs to be formidable in size, an E80 type ferrite E-core could be tried.
Remember you may have to incorporate more than 1 E core, may be 2 or 3 E-cores together, placed side by side for accomplishing the massive 5KVA power output from the assembly.
Use the largest one that may be available and wind the 5+5 turns using 10 numbers of 20 SWG super enameled copper wire, in parallel.
After 5 turns, stop the primary winding insulate the layer with an insulating tape and begin the secondary 18 turns over this 5 primary turns. Use 5 strands of 25 SWG super enameled copper in parallel for winding the secondary turns.
Once the 18 turns are complete, terminate it across the output leads of the bobbin, insulate with tape and wind the remaining 5 primary turns over it to complete the ferrite cored TR1 construction. Don't forget to join the end of the first 5 turns with the start of the top 5 turn primary winding.
E-Core Assembly Method
The following diagram gives an idea regarding how more than 1 E-core may be used for implementing the above discussed 5 KVA ferrite inverter transformer design:
|E80 Ferrite core|
use any spacers between the core pieces, the circuit worked well with
the trafo cool while in operation. I always preferred an EI core.
power supplies with non-gaped core trafos worked best. (i am describing
the trafo from an old atx pc power supply since i used those only. The
pc power supplies do not fail that easily unless its a blown capacitor
or something else.)---
had trafos with thin spacers often were discolored and failed quiet
early.(This i got to know by experience since till date i bought many
second hand power supplies just to study them)---
5kva ferrite core inverter circuit preparation details:
High frequency ac to low frequency ac converter circuit using the
irs2453d chip should be wired appropriately as shown in the diagram.