One thing is great about microcontroller ICs, these are available almost in all parts of the globe and electronic retailers.
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Fundamentally microcontroller devices are popularly used in applications involving assessments of the surrounding environment and in similar electronics.
You could find these devices being used for displaying a certain parameter, in motor control applications, LED lighting, sensors of various types such tilt sensor, accelerometer, velocity meter, data loggers, temperature controllers, keyboards etc.
The primary understanding regarding microcontrollers could be obtained by referring to AVR Amega32 microcontroller which is so advanced that sometimes it’s called a computer within a chip.
This device is assigned to carry out series of commands to form a program.
The language of the program that you would be seeing here is C++. You’ll get to learn this language in greater depths in the course here.
When it comes to MCUs, you get the facility of having the option of controlling and configuring all of its pinouts.
If you are getting a bit tired with this, just chill cause it's nothing complex at all, you will be eased through all the aspects steadily but firmly as we move ahead.
In an MCU chip all pins except the Vdd and Vss which are the power pins of the chip, can be assigned with exclusive designations.
If you glance the chip from the top, you would find a little triangular notch which indicates the starting the point from where the pinouts begins it count that’s the #1 pin of the chip begins just under this notch.
Starting from this pin you would find 20 pins upto the bottom on that side (left), and another 20 pins on the other side (right), continuing from bottom to top on the right hand side.
The first 8 pins starting from the notch are the PBO-7 which form the index pins of the IC since all program here begin with the index zero.
The above series of pinouts is termed PORT B, while there are other identical sets of ports assigned A to D.
These ports could be assigned to accept and recognize a fed data called INPUT, and also to transmit data in some specified form called OUTPUT.
Two of the pins which come in the general category are the (+)/(-) pins which are also referred to as Vdd and GND.
One pin from PORT D (PDO-6) may be seen located on the left side of the chip at the bottom area.
PD7 which is pin#7 of PORT D could be traced standing alone and commencing the right hand side series of pinouts.
Now moving on from the right hand side of the chip where PORT D ends, PORT C begins its count upward in the order.
These contribute to the many interesting pins of the MCU right from analog to the digital ones.
These pins are featured to become the sensing inputs for detecting the many parameters through externally configured analog circuit stages.
The above pins constitute the PORT A.
The analog to digital conversion across the above pins could be understood with the help of an example wherein an analog temperature level detected using an ordinary sensor such as a thermister is applied to one of the PORT A pins which is readily accepted and converter by the MCU to produce a digital readout from zero to 255 degree F (an 8-bit figure which could be upgraded for achieving a 10-bit output).
Another feature which could be witnessed in MCUs additionally is the available programming space or the memory which determines the space for the variables and program specified for the microcontroller.
Furthermore to this, the MCUs have a built-in clock assigned for counting the relevant parameters.
The clock features enables the MCU to apply itself for many different counting processes which could be rapid in the range of microseconds depending upon the specification of the particular device, and also could be slower to any desired extents.