be considered as the easiest and perfect dual axis solar tracker system.
is able to track the daytime motion of the sun precisely and shift in the
vertical axis accordingly.
displacement of the sun and moves the entire mechanism in the horizontal plane
or in a lateral motion such that the orientation of the solar panel is always
kept in a straight axis to the sun so that it complements the vertical actions
of the tracker appropriately.
witnessed here. The solar tracker is basically mounted over a couple of stand
with a central movable axis.
circular axis over almost 360 degrees.
just at the corner of the pivotal axis in such a way that when the motor
rotates the entire solar panel shifts proportionately about its central pivot,
either anticlockwise or clockwise, depending upon the motion of the motor which
in turn depends on the position of the sun.
of LDR which corresponds to this vertical plane movement is so positioned that
it senses the sun light accurately and tries to keep the panel perpendicular to
the sun rays by moving the motor in the appropriate direction through a
definite number of stepped rotations.
interpreted by an electronic circuit which commands the motor for the above
vertical setting, but moves the panel through a lateral motion or rather it
moves the whole solar panel mount in circular motion over the horizontal plane.
sun during the seasonal changes, therefore in contrast to the vertical movements;
this operation is very gradual and cannot be experienced on a daily basis.
to the motor by the electronic circuit which operates in response to the sensing
done by the LDRs.
are mounted horizontally over the panel, at a specific position as shown in the
reveals that the whole configuration is actually very simple and
straightforward. Here a single IC 324 is utilized and only two of its op amps
are employed for the required operations.
comparator, responsible for activating their outputs whenever their inputs
waver or drift out of the predetermined window, set by the relevant pots.
sensing the light levels.
outputs of the opamp remain deactivated.
magnitude of light over it (which may happen due to the changing position of
the sun) the balance over the input of the opamp shift toward one direction,
immediately making the relevant opamps output go high.
transistor network, which in turn rotates the connected motor in a set
direction, such that the panel rotates and adjusts its alignment with the sun
rays until uniform amount of light is restored over the relevant set of LDRs.
the opamps again become dormant and switch off their outputs and also the
steps, as the sun alters its position and the above mechanism keeps shifting in
accordance to the suns position.
circuit assemblies will be required for controlling the dual actions or simply
to make the above discussed dual tracker solar system mechanism.Parts List
R3 = 15K,
R4 = 39K,
P1 = 100K,
P2 = 22K,
LDR = Normal type with a resistance of around 10 K to 40K in daylight under shade and infinite resistance in complete darkness.
Op-amps are from IC 324 or separately two 741 ICs may also be incorporated.
T1, T3 = TIP31C,
T2,T4 = TIP32C,
All diodes are 1N4007
Motor = As per the load and size of the solar panel
At the first glance it might appear that the above circuit does not incorporate an automatic resetting feature. However a closer investigation will show that actually this circuit will reset automatically when dawn sets in or in the morning daylight.
This might be true due to the fact that the LDRs are positioned inside enclosures which are specfiially designed in a "V" shape for facilitating this action.
From the reflection of of the rising sun light, during morning hours the sky gets more illuminated than the ground. Since the LDRs are positioned in "V" manner, the LDR which faces more toward the sky receives more light than the LDR which faces toward the ground. This situation activates the motor in the opposite direction, such that it forces the panel to revert in the early morning hours.
As the panel reverts towards the east, the relevant LDR begins getting exposed to even more ambient light from the rising sunlight, this pushes the panel even harder toward the east until both LDR are almost proportionately exposed toward the east rising sunlight, this completely resets the panel so that the process begins all over again.
Set Reset Function
In case a set reset feature becomes imperative, the following design may be incorporated.
The set switch is placed at the "sun-set" end of the tracker, such that it gets depressed when the panel finishes it's days tracking.
As can be seen in the below given figure, the supply to the tracker circuit is been given from the N/C points of the DPDT relay, it means when the 'SET" switch is pushed, the relay activates and disconnects the supply to the circuit so that the entire circuit shown in the above article now gets disconnected and does not interfere.
At the same time, the motor receives the reversing voltage via the N/O contacts so that it can initiate the reversing process of the panel to its original position.
Once the panel finishes its reversing process toward the "sun-rise" end, it pushes the reset switch placed suitably somewhere at that end, this action deactivates the relay again resetting the entire system for the next cycle.