The explained circuit can be used for all applications which calls for an initial delay ON feature for the connected load after the mains power is switched ON.
The shown diagram is pretty straightforward yet provides the necessary actions very impressively, moreover the delay period is variable making the set up extremely useful for the proposed applications.
The functioning can be understood with the following points:
Assuming the load which requires the delay ON action being connected across the relay contacts, when power is switched ON, the 12V DC passes via R2 but is unable to reach the base of T1 because initially, C2 acts as a short across ground.
The voltage thus passes through R2, gets dropped to relevant limits and starts charging C2.
Once C2 charges up to a level which develops a potential of 0.3 to 0.6V (+ zener voltage) at the base of T1, T1 is instantly switched ON, toggling T2, and the relay subsequently....finally the load gets switched ON too.
The above process induces the required delay for switching ON the load.
The delay period may be set by appropriately selecting the values of R2 and C2.
R1 ensures that C2 quickly discharges through it so that the circuit attains the stand by position as soon as possible.
D3 blocks the charge from reaching the base of T1.
R1 = 610K
R2 = 330K
R4 = 10K
D1 = 3V zener diode
D2 = 1N4007
D3 = 1N4148
T1 = BC547
T2 = BC557
C2 = 33uF/25V
Relay = SPDT, 12V/400 Ohms
Let's learn how the above delay ON timer circuit becomes applicable for solving the following presented issue by one of the keen followers of this blog, Mr. Nishant.