The post explains a simple delay ON timer circuit which allows the connected load at the output to be switched ON with some predetermined delay after power switch ON.
The explained circuit can be used for all applications which calls for an initial delay ON feature for the connected load after the mains power is switched ON.
How the Circuit Works
The shown diagram is pretty straightforward yet provides the necessary actions very impressively, moreover the delay period is variable making the set up extremely useful for the proposed applications.
The functioning can be understood with the following points:
Assuming the load which requires the delay ON action being connected across the relay contacts, when power is switched ON, the 12V DC passes via R2 but is unable to reach the base of T1 because initially, C2 acts as a short across ground.
The voltage thus passes through R2, gets dropped to relevant limits and starts charging C2.
Once C2 charges up to a level which develops a potential of 0.3 to 0.6V (+ zener voltage) at the base of T1, T1 is instantly switched ON, toggling T2, and the relay subsequently....finally the load gets switched ON too.
The above process induces the required delay for switching ON the load.
The delay period may be set by appropriately selecting the values of R2 and C2.
R1 ensures that C2 quickly discharges through it so that the circuit attains the stand by position as soon as possible.
D3 blocks the charge from reaching the base of T1.
R1 = 610K
R2 = 330K
R4 = 10K
D1 = 3V zener diode
D2 = 1N4007
D3 = 1N4148
T1 = BC547
T2 = BC557
C2 = 33uF/25V
Relay = SPDT, 12V/400 Ohms
Let's learn how the above delay ON timer circuit becomes applicable for solving the following presented issue by one of the keen followers of this blog, Mr. Nishant.
I have a 1KVA automatic voltage stabilizer.It has one defect that when it is switched on, very high voltage is outputted for about 1.5s (therefore cfls and bulb got fused frequently) after that the voltage becomes OK.
I have opened the stabilizer it consist of an auto-transformer,4 24V relay each relay connected to a separate circuit(each consisting of
10K preset,BC547,zener diode,BDX53BFP npn darlington pair transistor IC,220uF/63v capacitor,100uF/40V capacitor ,4 diodes and some resistors).
These circuits are powered by a step down transformer and output of these circuit are taken across corresponding 100uF/40V capacitor and fed to corresponding relay.What to do in order to tackle the problem.please help me.Hand drawn circuit diagram is attached.
Solving the Circuit Problem
The problem in the above circuit might be due to two reasons: one of the relays is switching ON momentarily connecting the wrong contacts with the output, or one of the responsible relays is settling down with the correct voltages a little while after power switch ON.
Since there are more than one relay, tracing out the fault and correcting it can be a bit tedious......the circuit of a delay ON timer explained in the above article could be actually very effective for the discussed purpose.
The connections are rather simple.
Using a 7812 IC, the delay timer can be powered from the existing 24V supply of the stabilizer.
Next, the delay relay N/O contacts may be wired in series with the stabilizer output socket wiring.
The above wiring would instantly take care of the issues as now the output would switch after some time during power witch ONs, allowing enough time for the internal relays to settle down with the correct voltages across their output contacts.
Feedback from Mr. Bill
I stumbled across your page doing research on the web to make my delay more consistent.Some back ground information first.
I am a bracket drag racer and launch the car on first sight of the 3rd amber bulb as the christmas tree is coming down.
I use a transbrake switch that is depressed to lock the automatic transmission in forward and reverse at the same time.
This allows you to rev up the engine to build power for launch. When the button is released the transmission comes out of reverse and moves the car forward under high rpm.
This is like popping the clutch on a manual transmission car, anyway my car reacts to quickly and the result is a redlight, leaving to early, and you lose the race.
In dragracing your reaction time on the launch is everything and it is a game of hundreths-thousanths with the big boys, so I have put the transbrake switch on a relay and put a 1100uf cap combo across the relay to delay its release.
Because of the car electronics I don't believe there is a precise voltage charging this cap every time I activate this circuit and precision is key so I bought a power stabilizer off of Ebay that takes 8-15 volts in and gives a consistent 12volts out.
This turned my season around but i believe this circuit could be made to be more precise and to vary the delay time in an easier way rather than swap cap combos.
Also should I run a diode in front of the relay, not currently because all that is there is the on off switch- where will the current go? I am not an electrical engineer by any means but do have some knowledge from trouble shooting high end audio for many years.
Would love your thoughts- thankyou
Analyzing and Solving the Circuit
I have attached the schematic of an adjustable delay circuit, please check it out. You can use it for the mentioned purpose.
The 100K preset can used and adjusted for acquiring precise short delay periods as per your specifications.
However, please note that, the supply voltage will need to be minimum 11V, for the 12V relay to operate correctly, if this is not fulfilled then the circuit might malfunction.