Relay Pinout Connection and Working Details

In this post we learn comprehensively regarding how relay works in electronic circuits, how to identify its pinouts of any relay through a meter and connect in circuits. Introduction Whether it’s for flashing a lamp, for switching AC motor or for other similar operations, relays are the best in the business. However young electronic enthusiasts … Read moreRelay Pinout Connection and Working Details

Understanding PID Controller

The first successful assessment of PID control theory was practically verified in the field of automatic steering systems for ships, way back around the year 1920. After this it was applied in various industrial automatic process controls requiring optimized and accurate manufacturing output specifications. For manufacturing units PID was popularly implemented for achieving precise pneumatic … Read moreUnderstanding PID Controller

Understanding Pull-Up and Pull-Down Resistors with Diagrams and Formulas

In this post we are going to explore pull-Up resistor and pull-down resistor, why they are commonly used in electronic circuits, what happens to electronic circuits without Pull-Up or Pull-down resistor, and How to calculate Pull-Up and Pull-down resistor values and finally we will see about open collector configuration. By Arduino Guru How Logic Inputs … Read moreUnderstanding Pull-Up and Pull-Down Resistors with Diagrams and Formulas

Digital Buffer – Working, Definition, Truth Table, Double Inversion, Fan-out

In this post we will try to understand what digital buffers are, and we will be taking a look at its definition, symbol, truth table, double inversion using logic “NOT” gate, digital buffer fan out fan in, tri-state buffer, tri state buffer switch equivalent, Active “HIGH” tri-state buffer, Active “HIGH” inverting tri-state buffer, Active “LOW” … Read moreDigital Buffer – Working, Definition, Truth Table, Double Inversion, Fan-out

How Logic Gates Work – Step by Step Guide

In this post we are going to comprehensively understand regarding what logic gates are and its working. We will be taking a look at the basic definition, symbol, truth table, Multi input gates, we will be also constructing transistor based gate equivalents and finally we will take an overview on various relevant CMOS ICs. What … Read moreHow Logic Gates Work – Step by Step Guide

What is Constant Current Source – Facts Explained

In this post we try to analyze what is constant current source and how it affects a load, or how it may be used with a load correctly for achieving the most efficient results. The following discussion between me and Mr. Girish will clearly explain what is CC or how constant current operates. How a … Read moreWhat is Constant Current Source – Facts Explained