I am looking for circuit comprising of the comparator (LM 324) to drive a relay. The objective of this circuit is to:
1. Sense AC supply and switch relay 'ON' when voltage is in between 180-250V.
2. Relay should turned 'ON' after 5 seconds
3. Relay should turned 'ON' after zero voltage detection of supplied AC (Zero voltage detector). This is to minimize arching in the relay contacts.
4. Finally and most importantly, the relay switchover time should be less than 5 ms as a normal off-line UPS does.
5. LED indicator to indicate the state of relay.
The above functionality can be found in UPS circuit which is bit complex to understanding since UPS has many other functional circuit beside this. So am looking for a separate simpler circuit which only works as mentioned above. Kindly help me to build the circuit.
Component available and other details:
AC mains = 220V
Battery = 12 V
Comparator = LM 324 or something similar
Transistor = BC 548 or BC 547
All type of Zener are available
All types of resistor are available
T1 forms the sole zero detector component and triggers only when the AC mains half cycles are near to crossover points that's either below 0.6V or above -0.6V. The AC half cycles are basically extracted from the bridge output and applied to the base of T1.
A1 and A2 are arranged as comparators for detecting the lower mains voltage threshold and the higher mains threshold respectively.
Under normal voltage conditions the outputs of A1 and A2 produce a low logic keeping T2 switched Off and T3 switched ON. This allows the relay to remain switched ON powering the connected appliances through mains voltage.
P1 is set such that voltage at the inverting input of A1 becomes just lower that the non-inverting input set by R2/R3, in case the mains voltage falls below the specified 180V.
When this happens, the output of A1 reverts from low to high triggering the relay driver stage and switching off the relay for the intended changeover from mains to inverter mode.
However this becomes possible only when the R2/R3 network receives the required positive potential from T1 which in turn takes place only during the zero crossings of the AC signals.
R4 makes sure that A1 does not stutter at the threshold point when the mains voltage goes below 180V or the set mark.
A2 is identically configured as A1, but it's positioned for detecting the higher cut-of limit of the mains voltage which is 250V.
Again the relay switch over implementation is executed only during the zero crossings of the mains AC with the help of T1.
Here R8 does the momentary latching job for ensuring a smooth transition of the switching.
C2 and C3 provides the required time lag before T2 can conduct fully and switch ON the relay. The values may be appropriately selected for achieving the desired delay lengths.