Looking at the circuit diagram we see that the entire circuit has been configured around ordinary general purpose transistors.
The functioning of the circuit may be understood with the following points:
Transformer X1 along with the D1 and the capacitor C4 forms the basic power supply circuit for providing the required power to the circuit.
The first stage which includes R1, C1, R2, R3, R4 and Q1 form the input sensor circuit.
The next corresponding stages consisting of Q2 and C3 form the flip flop stage and makes sure that the signals from the input sensor stage is appropriately converted into alternate toggling of the output.
The output stage consists of a single transistor Q4. It is basically configured as a relay driver stage for translating the flip flop actions from the previous stage into physical toggling of the connected load across the relay terminals.
The diagram of a simple clap switch circuit using transistors is shown in the below given diagram
R1 - 15K
R R3 -270K
R4 - 3K3
R6 - 27K
R7,11 - IK5
R8,9 - 10K
R13 - 2K2
C3, C1 - 10KPF Disc
C2,3 - 47KPF Disc.:
C4 - 1000uF/16V;
Q1,2,3,4 - BC547B
D1 - 1N4007
D2,3,4,5 -1N4148 _
Xl - 12V/300mA Transformer .
MIC - Condenscr Mic
RLY — 12V Single Charge over relay
Another version of the above can be seen in the following diagram: