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Make this Amplifier Short/Overload Protection Circuit

While working with high power amplifier designs, two things become crucial, the protection of the amplifier and the protection of the speakers from an accidental over current influx.

Especially when the amplifier design involves costly mosfets, the design becomes specifically vulnerable to short circuits at the outputs.

A short circuit at the output may be caused due to mishandling or ignorance from the part of the user.

Whatever might be the reason, the end results in the destruction of the precious mosfets inside the amplifier box.

The above mishap can be prevented by adding a small circuit for detecting a short circuit conditions at the outputs of an amplifier.

The given amplifier short/overload protection circuit diagram, shows an inexpensive design using just a single transistor for implementing the intended feature.

Normally a low value resistor is usually employed at the output of mosfet amplifiers, the current developed across this resistor can be well exploited for tripping a relay in case it exceeds the safe maximum current value.

The current threshold across the above resistor is sensed by an LED inside an optocoupler, which lights up the moment a short or overload conditions is sensed.

This instantly triggers the opto transistor which in turn switches ON the transistor driver and the associated relay mechanism.

Since the relay coils support the amplifier connection with the speaker output, disconnects the amplifier from the output connection, preventing the amplifier devices from a possible damage.

The capacitor at the base of the transistor keeps the transistor switched for a few seconds so that the relay does not oscillate randomly.


28 Comments

    • Hi,
      yes by mistake the positive connection is not shown in the diagram, a separate +12V should be connected to the link that connects the relay coil and the opto transistor.

  1. have you built and tested this project/the project is impressive does this protection also include d.c currents against the speakers?

  2. Sorry I can't understand which voltage
    Input to transformer is 220 volt and the output of the transformer is 24 volt the transformer current rateing is 5 amps
    Mean while I get only 1 ohmes in India
    Thank-you

    • the 0.5 ohm shown in the diagram will need to be calculated as explained using the formula in the previous comment.

      If your amplifier operating volatge is 24V then

      100/24 = 4.16

      R = 1.5/4.16 = 0.36 ohms

      wattage of resistor will be = 1.5 x 4.16 = 6.24 or a 10 watt will do.

      if you are getting 1 ohm then use two in parallel, in place of the indicated 0.5 ohm

  3. Does anyone have a COMPLETE working circuit (including missing +12V to relay and opto) with all parts IDENTIFIED? Has anyone tested or built this circuit?

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