functions. The basic functions of these amazing devices is to convert solar
energy or sun light into electricity.
individual photo voltaic cells. Each of these cells are able to generate a tiny
magnitude of electrical power, normally around 1.5 to 3 volts.
Many of these cells over the panel are wired in series so
that the total effective voltage generated by the entire unit mounts up to an usable
12 volts or 24 volts outputs.
the level of the sun light incident over the surface of the panel.
charging a lead acid battery. The lead acid battery when fully charged is used
with an inverter for acquiring the required AC mains voltage for powering the
the panel for it to function optimally. However since the sun is never still,
the panel needs to track or follow the suns path constantly so that it
generates electricity at an efficient rate.
automatic dual tracker solar panel system you may refer one of my earlier articles.
Without a solar tracker, the solar panel will be able to do the conversions
only at around 30 % efficiency.
this device may be considered the heart of the system as far converting solar
energy into electricity is concerned, however the electricity generated
requires a lot of dimensioning to be done before it can be used effectively in
the preceding grid tie system.
varies drastically according to the position of the sun and intensity of the
sun rays and of course on the degree of incidence over the solar panel.
harm and unnecessary heating of the battery and the associated electronics;
therefore can be dangerous to the whole system.
normally a voltage regulator circuit is used in between the solar panel output
and the battery input. This circuit makes sure that the voltage from the solar
panel never exceeds the safe value required by the battery for charging.
minimum voltage output from the panel should be higher than the required battery
charging voltage, meaning even during adverse conditions when the sun rays are
not sharp or optimum, the solar panel still should be able to generate a
voltage more than say 12 volts which may be the battery voltage under charge.
costly and not so reliable; however making one such regulator at home using
ordinary electronic components can be not only fun but also very economical.
utilizes very ordinary components and yet fulfills the needs just as required
by our specs.
becomes the heart of the entire configuration and becomes responsibly for implementing
the desired voltage regulations single handedly.
the output for the battery received at the output of the IC. The pot or the preset
is used to accurately set the voltage level that may be considered as the safe
value for the battery.
makes sure that the battery always receives a fixed predetermined charging
current rate and is never over driven.
positions indicated can be simply wired even by a layman. Rest of the function
is taken care of by the regulator circuit.
battery gets fully charged (as indicated over the meter).
selecting the value of the resistors R3. It can be done by solving the formula:
voltage from the regulator.